Category: Blog

Review of The Capabilities of S-400 Air Defense System and Its Importance for India Defense Forces: Feasibility and Effectivity Analysis

Abstract: Air Defence is one of the most important concepts related to the defence of a nation. It is not possible to protect a country without having full control over its national airspace. The presence of airspace superiority gives that particular nation a superiority in not only national defence but also in projecting power to the neighbouring nations as well. It is one of the reasons why countries like Russia, Israel, India and Turkey can project power to hostile neighbouring nations due to their superiority in air force capabilities and technologies. However, as strong as an offensive capability of an Air Force of a Nation may be, the real capability also lies in the ability to defend against airpower threats and power projections by air. In order to achieve this, there must be non-offensive air defence capability which comprises of long range detection and illumination of targets including air force assets such as attack planes, bombers, missiles and rockets. This can be done as a standalone system or by using a combination of systems and assets. One such asset that has been very popular in the last few years has been the S-400 Air Defence System which has been developed by Russian scientists and engineers. While the S-400 system was developed from iterations of old S-Defence series that were originally developed for the protection of Russia, now the latest S-400 system has been sold to countries like China and Turkey and also it is being considered for sale by nations such as India. In the international community, there is a lot of hype about the superior air defence capabilities of the Russian S-400 Air Defence System, and this paper reviews the capabilities of the S-400 Air Defence System and its effectiveness based on the results of its predecessors as well. Literature Review, as well as past successes and the failures of the S-XX Defence systems iterations also provided for reference.

Keywords: S-400 Air Defence System, S-400, S-300, Air Defence Systems, Patriot Air Defence System, Missile Defence System

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Global Aviation Outlook and the Effects of the COVID19 Pandemic

One of the most significant inventions that probably changed the global landscape in a magnificent way was the invention of powered flight by the Wright Brothers in 1903. While the first original powered flight lasted for only 12 seconds; it opened up an era of travel and global expansion in the 20th century. Especially after the initial aviation boom of 1930’s, the aviation industry has shaped the world both politically as well as economically, and furthermore in 21st century, aviation has definitely become one of the top 3 influential industries in the world.  Aviation industry can be considered as the backbone of the global economy since aviation encompasses not just the travel of individuals, but also the air transportation of goods and commodities across the world. Due to the aviation industry, the world has become a smaller place and it has become possible for any entrepreneur in India or anywhere else in the world to conduct business with any other country and sell his/her products or services. Moreover, families and friends have become closer to each other with distances becoming meaningless and people across the world have been able to explore various fascinating locations to help create a true global community of humanity. Especially countries like India and China have played a great role in the aviation boom of the 21st century, with the expansion of their economies as well as with the expansion of new airports and new aircrafts.

However, the arrival of SARS-CoV2- virus, which is the cause of the COVID19 Pandemic, has altered the global landscape and the global economy forever in various ways. Aviation industry, which has been the major backbone of the global economy and global travel, has suffered immense amounts of damage due to the COVID19 pandemic. Especially due to global lockdowns and travel restrictions across the world (including Schengen travel restrictions and USA travel restrictions) have made air travel impossible since mid of March and thousands of planes throughout the world have been grounded with no clear date of operation in sight. Though some local flights in China and USA remains, most flights across Europe, Asia, and Africa have been legally grounded and as a result, airlines have grounded their planes for weeks. Of course, one exception to this situation has been the international flights operated by governments to extradite their citizens from infected countries.

Figure 1: Coronavirus Effect on Airline Profits (Ref: Financial Times)

One of the primal factors of the aviation industry is that like a well-oiled machine, it has to be kept operational in order for it to be productively functional. Just like once you shut off a machine, it becomes difficult to turn it back on after several months (if it has not been maintained), this is doubly so for the concept of airplanes and airports. It’s an interesting fact known by Aerospace Engineers that a functional plane which is kept constantly flying is in a far better shape than a plane which has been grounded.  Keeping a plane on the ground, requires extensive maintenance, engine overhaul, protective covering, and round the clock supervision.  This means preserving the engines, removing all fluids, and getting everything covered in protective casing against outer elements such as the weather and birds. In addition, their wheels need to be rotated regularly and their engines have to be kept dry with silica moisture absorbents. Hence, in a way, this is even more debilitating for airlines, as an efficient and economically viable airlines always try to keep all of its airplanes flying and this is why global airlines such as Lufthansa and Emirates in the past were so successful in their profitability.

Many aviation analysts agree that this is the worst aviation crisis that the aviation industry has faced since its inception. According to industry research organization Cirium, more then 16,000 planes are grounded worldwide and many major airports across the world have become parking lots to these planes. Besides the huge maintenance costs of airplanes on the ground, airlines also have to pay for parking of each plane on a long term and these charges can depend on the country as well as the airport.  For example, in India, airlines for each wide-body aircraft have to pay approximately $1000 per day (roughly 75,000 Rs per day) and if you can imagine 100 days or longer duration of grounding for many long range aircraft such as Boeing 777-300; it is possible to see how fast it can add up for a single widebody aircraft. (7.5 Million Rupees per 1 wide-body aircraft/100 days). (Ref: Bloomberg) For 100 wide-body aircraft stored for 100 days, this would add up to very large amounts that would be impossible for any airline to bear on its own. If you also add maintenance costs described above to this parking cost, you can quickly see that airlines across the world are losing money excessively and it is not something that can be maintained for any period of time, especially since globally we don’t know when will the COVID19 outbreak be fully extinguished. Even though the peak point seems to have been reached in many countries, many analysts agree that our lifestyles won’t turn pack to pre-COVID19 era immediately and that global aviation will take 2 to 6 years to recover to its 2019 metrics.






Figure 2: Grounded Airplanes (Ref: Deutsche Welle)

Besides the airlines,  the losses to aircraft manufacturers such as Boeing and Airbus is also going to be immense, especially for Boeing, as it was already facing lot of grounded aircraft due to its issues in Boeing 737 Max aircraft, which caused all Boeing 737 Max aircraft to be grounded in the world since March 2019. Coupled with the COVID19 troubles, many industry experts suggest that Boeing will need a large bailout from US Government to survive and already some subsidy funding has been supplied to Boeing by the government. While Airbus seems to be in better economical shape; the overall effect of the COVID19 pandemic on European economies have been devastating in general. Besides aircraft manufacturers, airport authorities are also facing critical times, since many airports across the world are in a state of zero income (except for those designated as holding spaces for aircraft as described above) and even nonoperational airports have many operational maintenance expenses to keep them certified for landing of airplanes in the future. Overall, IATA estimates that the loss to the aviation sector will total around 1 trillion dollars.(Ref: IATA)

However, regardless of all the negative outlook parameters; it must be stated that aviation industry will continue to be the backbone of global economy and global growth. We must never forget that the aviation industry brings us together no matter where we are in the world and aviation makes everything possible from commerce to tourism to sports and to education in a world where everything and everyone is connected with each other. Aviation faced many crises before such as the 1929 depression, September 11 Terrorist Attack, 2008 Global Recession and even the 2002 SARS outbreak, which had also affected the number of passengers flying due to health concerns.

Eventually, after each crisis, aviation industry always came back globally stronger than before and it is expected that eventually this crisis will cause the aviation industry to be far stronger than before. Of course, this will mean that some smaller airlines may be going bankrupt or that they may have to conglomerate with bigger airlines. Naturally, many governments will be providing support and subsidy to the larger airlines to help put them back in financial health similar to German Government giving support to Lufthansa or the US Government giving a similar support to Delta Airlines. Even the manufacturers of airplanes and parts will have to rechange their thinking with a new paradigm and there may be some changes to make the aviation industry become more productive as a result. However, in 5 years, aviation industry in its changed form will be more powerful than before and with the upcoming advances in the Aerospace sector, we may also soon see aviation industry taking a turn for more advanced opportunities in the next 5-10 years. There are exciting developments such as inception of new supersonic aircraft similar to Concorde of the 80’s, so that travel from one continent to other will be matter of minutes. Space tourism is growing bigger than before with the aid of the private sector and simple Low Earth Orbit flights by private companies may become commonplace like international flights in the next decade.

In a way, aviation and aerospace is still the future of our world, and thus the demand for professionals will be at an all-time high in the next 5-10 years. The progress of humanity has never been stopped due to any catastrophe, as progress has continued regardless of obstacles and aviation will not be an exception as well. In many ways aviation and aerospace symbolizes the hope and the positivity of the future of humanity and as long as humanity is alive, both the aviation and the aerospace sector will continue to grow beyond our dreams.


Prof. Dr. Ugur GUVEN

Advisory Council – UN CSSTEAP

Please Stay Away from

As a scientist, I request all concerned to stay away from as I dont feel they are professional in their approach.

You Can Be NASA Scientist in your Own Home

Use NASA Work at Home Opportunities to Find New Planets and Find New Data

You can be a scientist in your own home. NASA has many opportunities for citizen scientists to contribute to ongoing research. Here are a few opportunities:

Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 — Search the realm beyond Neptune for new brown dwarfs and planets.

GLOBE Observer — our observations help scientists track changes in clouds, water, plants, and other life in support of climate research.

JUNOCAM — You can actively participate in NASA’s Juno mission by uploading your images of Jupiter to help the team decide what JUNOCAM will photograph.

Planet Hunters TESS — Join the search for undiscovered worlds.

Stardust @ Home — NASA’s Stardust spacecraft brought home particles of interstellar material. Can you find them?

COVID19 and Future of Aerospace Engineering and Exciting Developments

Dr Guven Views on Covid19 Pandemic and the Future of Humanity

Effect of Coronavirus on Student Exchange Across the World

Here are some statistics by EAIE on the effect of Covid19 Pandemic on student exchange (both inbound student exchange as well as outbound exchange) as well as faculty mobility.

#studentexchange #EAIE #highereducation #internationaleducation #education #internationalisation

You can read the full report here: Covid-19Report_FA

Some Recommendations for Postgraduate Students Thinking of a PhD

Many postgraduate students will think of their future in terms of industry or a PhD. Especially in the competitive world of the 21st century, doing a PhD can be very helpful in establishing yourself as an expert in a field of your choice. Scholar Journal is a blog which has been stared by me for young scholars and researchers to get guidance on their future opportunities. It will also be developed more in time so that the Scholar Journal will also serve as aan academic portal for young scientists ands

Fly High with a Career in Aerospace Engineering

Aerospace Engineering is one of the most fascinating subjects having two main branches of aeronautics and astronautics, which also have sub-branches amongst themselves. While aeronautical engineering specialises in aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles and missiles (basically everything that flies within the limits of Earth’s atmosphere), astronautical engineering includes rockets, satellites, space stations, space shuttles and spacecraft that fly beyond Earth’s atmosphere.

The scope for aerospace engineering is literally beyond stars. An aerospace engineer designs, tests, constructs and maintains aircraft and spacecraft. In India, the industry is one of the fastest growing with civil, defense and space segments showing significant growth potential.


Planes and helicopters carrying people fly across the skies in Earth’s atmosphere. India’s civil aviation industry is on a high-growth trajectory due to fast economic growth in recent years and sizeable increase in real consumer spending. Airlines flew nearly 100 million passengers on domestic routes last year.

The government has ushered in a new era of expansion – driven by low-cost carriers, modern airports, foreign direct investments and growing emphasis on regional connectivity. The air transport sector already supports eight million jobs and contributes 72 billion dollars to the GDP.

According to International Air Transport Association (IATA), India will displace Britain to be the third largest aviation market with 278 million passengers in 2026. In 2035, IATA expects the Indian market to serve 442 million passengers and rank as the world’s largest aviation market.

US plane maker forecasts that Indian airlines will need 1,850 new planes valued at 265 billion dollars in the next 20 years, churning up huge demand for pilots, aircraft maintenance engineers and ground handling staff. In addition, Indian engineers are well known for their skills and many of them provide their work to foreign aeronautics companies outsourcing their work to India. This is also expected to increase with the growth of the domestic and international aviation sector.


Phenomenal transformations are taking place globally with commercial space travel likely to become reality in the next five years. Private companies, government agencies and educational institutions are collaborating to accelerate human transition into a sustainable multi-planetary species.

Moon Express, the first private company in history to receive government permission to travel beyond Earth’s orbit, is planning its maiden lunar mission to take place in late 2017. Naveen Jain, its billionaire co-founder and former Microsoft employee, hopes to find water, Helium-3, gold, platinum and rare earth metals on the surface.

Bengaluru-based Team Indus, which was India’s first and only startup to have received one million dollars from Google Lunar XPrize last year and it too seems set to create history. By next Republic Day – on January 26, 2018 – the startup plans to land its first spacecraft on the Moon, travel at least 500 metres on its surface, and send back images and videos. Team Indus also plans to put the Indian flag on the Moon’s surface on Republic Day.

The spacecraft will be launched on December 28 aboard vehicle PSLV-XL in association with Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). After a successful Mars Orbiter Mission (MoM), ISRO is eyeing inter-planetary missions to Jupiter and Venus. It recently created a world record by launching 104 satellites at one go on board its vehicle PSLV-C37.

The learnings will have immense benefits for oil exploration, increasing use of tele-medicines in remote areas and disaster mitigation missions in emergencies. Clearly, India is a strong player in space exploration and there will be lot of opportunities for young scientists, engineers and such professionals in future to work on fundamental functions.


There is high demand and competition for good aerospace engineers in various streams. Job opportunities are available in airlines, helicopter companies, aviation companies, corporate research companies, the Air Force, Defense Ministry, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, ISRO and many others. Plane manufacturers like Boeing and Airbus also have huge engineering centers in India as part of their global supply chains.

While the country is home to a million engineering graduates every year, it is the industry readiness of this vast talent pool that will play a key role in achieving the vision of creating a scalable and sustainable aerospace ecosystem.

The aerospace industry needs engineers with right technical skills combined with applicable soft skills. A background in mechanical, electrical and electronic engineering or mechatronics, materials (for example composites) and system integration knowledge is only the start.

To build up such an ecosystem for aerospace, India needs technology and capability to cover the complete lifecycle of aerospace products encompassing research and development, engineering, manufacturing, testing and after-market services.

The future

Engineering talent needs to be trained and exposed to international experiences to spark innovation and creative thinking. Global skills make them receptive to world-class standards of safety and quality. Indian students must strive to get such experience for career advancement. The industry and government too should focus on deploying more funds for scholarships and training programmes to tackle these key challenges.

Industry readiness of the graduates or diploma holders is vital to meet the needs of aerospace and defence industry – especially now when the government has launched ‘Make in India’ initiative to attract domestic and foreign investments, so that the country can emerge as a low-cost, high-quality manufacturing hub on the global horizon.

Over the next two decades, aerospace engineering will extend its reach to serve societal needs domestically and globally in areas like health care for remote areas, energy efficiency, alternative energy, environmental sustainability, disaster mitigation and homeland security. Future engineers will thus move the industry to a new level with expanded markets and grand challenges.

Many industry leaders and policy makers believe that passenger space travel will grow rapidly, creating new employment for millions of people and profoundly changing our daily life on Earth. Quite naturally, professional advancements will increasingly depend on the ability to succeed in international contexts.

You can read the original article here:

The writer is a Professor of Aerospace Engineering and Advisory Council Member at UN Centre for Space Science and Space Technology Education in Asia and Pacific (CSSTEAP).

Student Exchange Blog for Students Looking for International Student Exchange

I recommend the following blog for general questions about student exchange and student mobility and international internship applications. Student Mobility can be a great opportunity for students to have international exposure and to strengthen their CVs